How to reduce PGD2 in the scalp


Androgenic alopecia (AGA), also called male-pattern baldness, is the most common form of hair loss and has been associated with other dysfunctions such as coronary heart disease and an enlarged prostate.

It seems that PGD2 prevents the hair follicles from maturing

There have been numerous studies concerning androgenic alopecia but more data is needed to clearly establish a true underlying cause — the key thing(s) that differentiate(s) those with a predisposition from those without.

Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania

In 2012, the University of Pennsylvania published a breakthrough study concluding that PGD2 was found in higher levels than normal on the scalp of balding men. It seems that PGD2 prevents the hair follicles from maturing. This means that the PGD2 inhibits the follicles from growing hair. In mice studies with explanted hair, when PGD2 was applied topically, it clearly inhibited hair growth. PGD2 causes hair loss when it binds to a receptor called GPR33; when activated by high levels of PGD2 the receptor inhibits hair growth. (Garza et al., 2012)

There are, however, supplements that are considered PGD2 blockers

There are many products marketed for hair loss prevention — some contain substances to improve circulation in the scalp, others contain DHT blockers.

Since PGD2’s relation to hair loss is a recent discovery, there haven’t been many products on the market to address this particular issue. There are, however, supplements that are considered PGD2 blockers and could be used by those experiencing hair loss.

A study has analysed the 289 constituents of 12 selected herbs to see whether they would work as PTG2 inhibitors. The properties were analysed for skin permeability, sensitisation, irritation, corrosion, mutagenicity, tumorigenicity and reproductive effects. Although many were found to have PGD2 inhibition, many caused adverse reaction and also poor skin permeability. Among them, ricinoleic acid, acteorside, amentoflavone, quercetin and hinokiflavone were good inhibitors with minimal adverse skin reactions (Fong et al., 2015) and may be safe and efficient for hair loss treatments. But, without further studies regarding their efficacy in hair loss treatment or at least new research confirming their effect on PGD2, some of the inhibitors presented above remain a mystery.

Fortunately, there are other PGD2 inhibitors that may have the answer to our hair loss problem, at least with more research behind them to support their effect as inhibitors.

Studies on PGD2 Inhibitors

1. Eicosapentaenoic acid

Eicosapentaenoic acid is an omega-3 fatty acid that has been known to inhibit PGD2. It is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that reduces PGD2 generation in response to IgE-anti-IgE challenge incubation. It is also suggested that endogenous EPA diet supplementation might reduce PGD2 production. (Obata et al., 1999) It is contained in various oily fish and fish oil such as cod liver, herring, mackerel, salmon, menhaden and sardine, as well as seaweed and phytoplankton. (Natural Medicines Database, 2016)

2. Resveratrol

Organic grape seed extract

Resveratrol is a naturally occurring phytoalexin that is produced by some spermatophytes such as grapevines, in response to injury. It can be found in small traces in white wine, but it’s more abundant in red wine. There are other fruits and oils that contain minimal traces of resveratrol. It is a known antioxidant and has been shown to modulate the metabolism of lipids and inhibit the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and aggregation of platelets. (Fremont, 2000)

A study in 2014 and one in 2016 concluded that resveratrol suppresses PGD2-stimulated OPG synthesis through inhibiting p38 MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK in osteoblasts (Kuroyanagi, Gen et al., 2014), as well as the fact that Resveratrol as a therapeutic agent could inhibit PGD2-mediated inflammation. (Devon et al., 2016)

3. Quercetin

Quercetin Supplement

Quercetin is a pigment, also known as a flavonoid, which gives plants their colours. Flavonoids are antioxidants and are known for their neutralizing effects against free radicals. (Boots, Haenen and Bast, 2008) There are several studies showing that Quercetin is effective in reducing PGD2.

A study published in 2012 on contact dermatitis and photosensitivity argued that Quercetin can effectively inhibit secretion of histamine and PGD2. When compared to Cromolyn, Quercetin significantly decreased contact dermatitis and photosensitivity and was argued to be a promising candidate as an effective mast cell inhibitor through sufficient oral absorption. (Weng et al., 2012)

Another study supports these claims as it concluded that Quercetin can eliminate erythema and burning due to niacin in patients with coronary artery disease by inhibiting PGD2. (Kalogeromitros et al., 2008)

There is also treatment model for alopecia areata with quercetin based on studies in mice. The mice were treated with subcutaneous quercetin and hair regrowth was observed in lesional areas. The study also showed that a systematic delivery of quercetin through intraperitoneal injections prevented and reduced spontaneous onset of alopecia areata. (Wikramanayake et al., 2012)

Quercetin is found in various foods, from broccoli, berries, apples to tea and red wine. It can also be added as a dietary supplement. (Erdman et al., 2007)

4. Cromolyn

Cromolyn sodium is an anti-inflammatory medication used for asthma. Cromolyn is also a PGD2 inhibitor, however, not as good as Quercetin, according to a study in 2012. (Weng et al., 2012)

5. Luteolin

Just as other flavonoids in this list, Luteolin has been found to inhibit PGD2 in various studies. A study involving niacin induced skin temperature shows that the increase in temperature is associated with PGD2 and 5-ht elevations. Rats that received Luteolin had levels of PGD2 and 5-ht inhibited by 100 and 67%, respectively. (Papaliodis et al., 2009)
Another study published in 2000 in Clinical & Experimental Allergy Journal (Kimata et al.,) supports the same findings showing that luteolin and quercetin are potent inhibitors in the release of histamine, leukotrienes, PGD2 and GM-CSF from HCMC in a concentration-dependent manner.

Topical application or dietary supplement

Studies suggest that some flavonoids such as quercetin could be used effectively as topical medication rather than supplements, so that people experiencing hair loss could benefit from an increased effect. When it comes to skin conditions quercetin is efficient in inflammatory skin diseases (Caddeo et al., 2014) as well as to control UVB-mediated oxidative damage of the skin (Casagrande et al.,), so topical application of these flavonoids might be more efficient than using them as dietary supplements. In alopecia areata, subcutaneous injections showed induced hair regrowth in preexisting alopecic lesions (in mice). (Wikramanayake et al., 2012)

Future research and FDA approved medication

Although these PGD2 inhibitors have been shown to work, their full effect is not known since there aren’t many clinical trials on humans regarding their effect on hair loss. Fortunately, for those waiting for approved medication for their conditions, a new drug, called Setipiprant, currently under clinical trial should be released in the next years. The drug was initially researched for treatment of allergies and inflammatory disorders such as asthmas but was discontinued. In the light of new research concerning PGD2 inhibitor and male pattern baldness, the medication is now in trial. (2016, )


  1. Krupa Shankar, D., Chakravarthi, M., & Shilpakar, RMale Androgenetic Alopecia: Population-Based Study in 1,005 Subjects.International Journal of Trichology, 1(2), 131–133. (2009) Link:
  2. Garza LA, Liu Y, Yang Z, et al., Prostaglandin D2 Inhibits Hair Growth and Is Elevated in Bald Scalp of Men with Androgenetic Alopecia. Science Translational Medicine. 2012;4(126):126ra34. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3003122. Link:
  3. Fong P, Tong HH, Ng KH, Lao CK, Chong CI, Chao CM, In silico prediction of prostaglandin D2 synthase inhibitors from herbal constituents for the treatment of hair loss. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2015, Dec 4;175:470-80. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.10.005 Link:
  4. Obata T., Nagakura T., Masaki T., Maekawa K., Yamashita K. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits prostaglandin D2 generation by inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase-2 in cultured human mast cells. Clin. Exp. Allergy. 1999;29:1129–1135. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2222.1999.00604.x. Link:
  5. Eicosapentaenoic acid – Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Link:
  6. Fremont Lucie, Biological effects of resveratrol, Life Sciences Volume 66, Issue 8, 14 January 2000, Pages 663-673 Link:
  7. Gen Kuroyanagi, Jun Mizutani, Akira Kondo, Naohiro Yamamoto, Rie Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Takanobu Otsuka, Osamu Kozawa, Haruhiko Tokuda, Suppression by resveratrol of prostaglandin D2-stimulated osteoprotegerin synthesis in osteoblasts Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids ,2014 Volume 91 , Issue 3 , 73 – 80 Link:
  8. Devon Shirley, Cody McHale, Gregorio Gomez, Resveratrol preferentially inhibits IgE-dependent PGD2 biosynthesis but enhances TNF production from human skin mast cells, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – General Subjects, Volume 1860, Issue 4, April 2016, Pages 678-685, ISSN 0304-4165, Link:
  9. Agnes W. Boots, Guido R.M.M. Haenen, Aalt Bast, Health effects of quercetin: From antioxidant to nutraceutical., European Journal of Pharmacology, Volume 585, Issues 2–3, 13 May 2008, Pages 325-337, ISSN 0014-2999,
  10. Weng Z, Zhang B, Asadi S, Sismanopoulos N, Butcher A, Fu X, et al., (2012) Quercetin Is More Effective than Cromolyn in Blocking Human Mast Cell Cytokine Release and Inhibits Contact Dermatitis and Photosensitivity in Humans. PLoS ONE 7(3): e33805. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033805 Link:
  11. D. Kalogeromitros, M. Makris, C. Chliva, X. Aggelides, D. Kempuraj, T. C. Theoharides, A quercetin containing supplement reduces niacin-induced flush in humans, Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2008 Jul-Sep; 21(3): 509–514. Link:
  12. Erdman JW, Jr, Balentine D, Arab L, Beecher G, Dwyer JT, Folts J, Harnly J, Hollman P, Keen CL, Mazza G, Messina M, Scalbert A, Vita J, Williamson G, Burrowes J. Flavonoids and heart health: proceedings of the ILSI North America Flavonoids Workshop. J Nutr. 2007;137:718S–737S. Link:
  13. Wikramanayake, T. C., Villasante, A. C., Mauro, L. M., Perez, C. I., Schachner, L. A., & Jimenez, J. J. (2012). Prevention and treatment of alopecia areata with quercetin in the C3H/HeJ mouse model. Cell Stress & Chaperones, 17(2), 267–274.
  14. Papaliodis, D., Boucher, W., Kempuraj, D. and Theoharides, T. C. (2008), The flavonoid luteolin inhibits niacin-induced flush. British Journal of Pharmacology, 153: 1382–1387. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0707668 Link:
  15. Kimata, Shichijo, Miura, Serizawa, Inagaki and Nagai (2000), Effects of luteolin, quercetin and baicalein on immunoglobulin E-mediated mediator release from human cultured mast cells. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 30: 501–508. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.2000.00768.x

Castor Oil as a Catalyst for Hair Growth

Castor oil is a viscous and sticky liquid, pale yellow in color with no odor to call its own. Non-descript though it might seem, this extract of castor seed is gifted with a unique chemical composition that makes it beneficial for hair growth.

Organic castor oil

Given the fact that this natural oil has been a part of ancient and holistic medicines practiced during the earliest civilizations, discovery of its positive effects on hair might have been serendipity. But once proven, it has since served as an effective remedy for those who have suffered loss of hair, lashes and eyebrows due to reasons ranging from over-plucking to scalp related problems.

There are several key ingredients of castor oil that provide hair growth stimulating effects. Let’s examine them:

Ricinoleic acid

Ricinoleic acid compound chemical structure

Accounting for more than 90% of castor oil’s constitution, ricinoleic acid is the single largest component, is mono-unsaturated and features 18 carbons. What renders it different is that its 12th carbon comprises of a hydroxyl functional group. It is courtesy of this structure of ricinoleic acid that castor oil derives its polar nature and hence is chemically more nourishing for the scalp.

Hair growth is spurred by a lipid compound named Prostaglandin (PGE2) and it could be best described as a catalyst. While its presence in high concentration promotes growth of hair, its depletion causes hair loss and eventually leads to baldness. Castor oil’s principle component – ricinoleic acid – has been scientifically proven to stimulate the production of Prostaglandin (PGE2) when applied to the scalp. Enhanced production of this lipid, particularly in bald spots, enriches hair follicles and encourages regeneration of hair.

Owing to being extra-hydroxylated, ricinoleic acid renders castor oil resistant to several types of bacteria and fungi. Thus, massaging it on the scalp on a regular basis keeps the hair follicles free from such contagions and prevents the scalp from becoming infected. The high viscosity which is also a result of the hydroxyl provides a thick coating that encompasses the hair and smoothens out the roughness and brittleness in the process.

Omega 9 Fatty Acids

Members of Omega family, namely 3, 6 and 9, are fatty acids and while all three are comprised of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon molecules, they differ in manner in which the carbon molecules are situated with respect to the double bond. The type found in castor oil is Omega 9 fatty acid, named as such courtesy of nine carbons following the Butyric acid that forms the beginning, or alpha end, of the chain.

Every massage of castor oil provides the scalp with a healthy dose of Omega 9 fatty acids which function like a sponge, meaning they absorb water from the air and use it to maintain the hydration of hair shaft. They also ensure that the water thus captured is not lost via evaporation by sealing it within.

Another characteristic that Omega 9 fatty acids derive from their inherent structure is the ability to boost immunity and in case of hair, this is manifested in form of cementing. When present in sufficient quantities, they cement the scales of the hair tightly and build a compact structure which is resistant to external factors. Being inherently strengthened, hair is not just less prone to breakages but remains free from split ends too.

Guidelines for applying Castor Oil

Courtesy of being a natural remedy for several hair related problems like stunted growth, loss, split ends and infections, castor oil has been rightly described as a multi-tasking agent. On your part, learning the correct technique of applying it is imperative if all the advantages are to be accrued.

The process of applying oil must always begin at the roots wherein parting hair into various sections and handling each one of them separately delivers maximum results. Further efficiency is guaranteed by first massaging oil onto the scalp thoroughly and then moving down the entire length of hair to the tips.

After application, castor oil should be allowed to remain for at least an hour for the ricinoleic acid and Omega 9 fatty acids to work their magic. Covering your head with a shower cap or wrapping a towel around will ensure that absorption is maximized and benefits accrued are optimum. Sticky that it is, it is not surprising that this oil takes 2-3 rounds of shampooing to be completely washed out, leaving the hair thick, smooth and shiny.



A must read for everyone not just people suffering with hair loss.

This is to anyone out there who’s seen Chris’ program and hasn’t started it yet.

I was a student when I started the program. I had a bad diet, I drank, smoked slept poorly. I still drink. I’ve quite smoking, which I wanted to do anyway.

But here’s what I learned from chris’ program, that I don’t think you’ll find anywhere else. And this is why I’m recommending it to everyone. Not just people who want to regrow their hair. Everyone should find out about this stuff! now I get why so many members say it’s life changing.

OK so first of all, everything you’re doing right now in your life (sleeping, eating, exercising, relaxing, showering… everything) – you’re doing it wrong. I know that sounds weird.

This program is like a health Bible. I was doing everything wrong. Once you realise all the things you’re doing wrong and you make a few little tweaks to the everyday habits in your life you realise your life can be a thousand times better. I seriously can’t undersell this.

The way my hair grows, the way my nails grow, the appearance of my skin, the way I feel. The way I sleep. It’s all changed.

When I look back to how I was as a student I only wish I could’ve given myself these instructions and said to myself READ THIS. DONT DO ANYTHING ELSE UNTIL YOU READ THIS.

It’s like my hormones were out of walk, my diet was all wrong. Even the way I was thinking was so negative.

This thing is life changing. Just download the instructions, read it and do it.

My results

So for me, like I say, the hair growth is great but it’s the way I feel and the way I look overall that has been the biggest difference. My skin is so healthy. My hair grows so fast. My hair wasn’t all that thin to begin with but was starting to thin out. Now my hair is better than its ever been. It’s shiny. I’m pretty sure my hair hasn’t been shiny like this since I was a kid!

There’s something amazing about the process I’ve been through and I’m so so glad I did it.

To anyone out there who hasn’t started yet. Get started. Stay with it. Read the instructions carefully. And follow them to the letter. Don’t do it half assed. Just go for it.

TrustPilot Excellent

This is the real deal

27 year old, male.

For me, genetics were the reason for my prematrure hair loss. My dad has been completely bald for my whole life. My older brothers started getting a receding hair line in there early twenties. So I just figured there was nothing I could do.

Then I got into a rock band, grew my hair long. Then it started receding. Then it started getting thin. Then I had to chop it cos it started looking bad.

I started Chrises method a couple years ago. What can I say? Its the best thing I ever did. Now I guess I can see how geneitcs aren’t exactly the cause of my hair loss but they just mean my hormones are pre programed to change. One of the results of that for me is going bald like my dad.

What the method is like to do

I was lazy as hell. I didnt do half the things in the method. To be honest I didnt even read the whole thing. I just read the first three steps. Thats all you need if you have male pattern baldness.

Anyway I posted my pitures to Chris so if you go to his website you can see why I’m giving this a 5 star review.

No doubt about it. My hair is regrowing. It takes a long time though. Dont expect instant results or anything. I saw one before and after on the website where the guys hair had regrown quite a lot in six weeks. But for me it was more like a year before I even noticed the difference. But looking back, the difference is crazy. I mean its crazy. My hair is like twice as thick. I dont know if I got lucky or what, but yeah, its pretty amazing.


Downsides for me were:

Its expensive. The program cost me 50 bucks. But what he doesnt tell you is you have to buy like $30 worth of stuff on top of that. And even more later in the method if you do that stuff to. Also its a lot to read. Like I said I didnt even read half of it.

One feedback Id give Chris is to cut out all the science stuff. Its all good if you wanna know about that stuff but honestly all I want is the instructions. He could probably cut the text down by half if he cut out all the explanations behind every little thing.

At first making the smoothies was annoying but I got into a regime with that and made 3 days worth so that wasnt so bad.

All in all I cant really complain. To be honest its changed my life. I would recommend it to anyone whos losing their hair. This thing is the real deal.

TrustPilot Excellent

Do Topical Polyphenols Increase Hair Growth?

Organic green tea

Polyphenols are organic chemicals usually found in plants that multiple phenol (C6H5OH) units attached to their structural compositions.

Common foods and drinks that contain polyphenols are green tea, assorted fruits, and green, leafy plants in general.

Polyphenols have been extensively researched for their health benefits to humans, including the area of hair growth.

A 3 Fold Increase in the Antibody Involved in Hair Growth

In a study done by Kwon et al. (2007), both the in vitro effects of green tea and the in vivo effects of topical green tea extract application were analyzed to see whether or not the use of the green tea would increase the rate of hair growth in subjects. The active ingredient in green tea, Epigallocatechin gallate, was the
particular polyphenol studied. The results of this study were that the direct, topical application of the Epigallocatechin gallate resulted in an almost 3-fold increase in the expression of the P-Erk antibody, which is an antibody involved in hair growth.

Their results indicate it was possible for EGCG to be used topically to increase hair growth. (Kwon et al., 2007)

10% Increase in Hair Growth

Supporting the results of the above study is another study done on a different polyphenol, Proanthocyanidin. This polyphenol is found in Zizyphus jujuba, also known as the jujube fruit.

Yoon, Al-Reza, & Kang (2010) studied the effects of topical jujube oil on mice. This study too showed that the polyphenol proanthocyanidin initiated hair growth in the shaved mice to 10% more than the control group (Yoon, Al-Reza, & Kang, 2010, pp. 1353-1354).

However, it must be noted that more studies need to be done on polyphenols in a topical sense. Kwon et. al (2007) stated in their conclusion that it was “unclear” how the polyphenol in green tea affected hair growth, particularly in different hair follicles. In addition, a study done by Rho et al. (2005), which suggested that the 45 plant extracts they tried on alopecia patients were helpful to hair growth, made clear that the exact mechanisms of polyphenols in relation to hair growth were unknown, and further research must be done to confirm precisely which plant oils work the best for hair growth.

  1. Kwon, O., Han, J., Yoo, H., Chung, J., Cho, K., Eun, H., & Kim, K. (2007). Human hair growth enhancement in vitro by green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Phytomedicine, 14(7-8), 551-555. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2006.09.009
  2. Rho, S., Park, S., Hwang, S., Lee, M., Kim, C., Lee, I., . . . Rang, M. (2005). The hair growth promoting effect of Asiasari radix extract and its molecular regulation. Journal of Dermatological Science, 38(2), 89-97. doi:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2004.12.025
  3. Yoon, J. I., Al-Reza, S. M., & Kang, S. C. (2010). Hair growth promoting effect of Zizyphus jujuba essential oil. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(5), 1350-1354. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2010.02.036

Aminexil for Hair Growth

Aminexil is a well-known hair loss treatment that has been available for a few years on the market. Although it’s quite popular, the treatment has not yet been FDA approved due to insufficient data on its effects.


What is Aminexil?

Aminexil is a diamino-pyrimidineoxide that was patented by L’Oreal and has been marketed as an effective treatment for hair loss for years. The treatment was created to be applied topically for more than a month and there is some research pointing towards its efficacy, but it is not a licensed treatment as it doesn’t have approval from the MHRA or the FDA yet. (Sawaya and Shapiro, 2000)

How Effective is Aminexil for hair loss

Studies involving Aminexil are scarce, but almost all available show that the treatment may be effective for the treatment of alopecia. However, we’d also consider the studies conducted so far to not be sufficient to draw solid conclusions.

A report released by L’Oreal cites more studies made by various dermatologists on Aminexil effects. Although the report by L’Oreal may be considered biased, there are other studies that show how Aminexil can actually prevent hair loss.

Aminexil is supposed to have a similar effect as Minoxidil towards hair loss and some topical treatments contain both.

May reduce fibrosis — a key cause of hair loss

Subjects who received Aminexil were found to have a decrease of telogen hair and increase of anagen hairs

The hair follicle has a connective sheath that surrounds it; its fibrosis has been identified as one of the factors associated with hair loss, which is characterized by the continuous shrinking of the androgen reactive hair follicles and ultimately perifollicular fibrosis. (Yoo et al. 2006) Aminexil inhibits the enzyme implicated in the process and contributes to a better hair health. (Baran and Maibach, 1994)

In the report released by L’Oreal (cited by, retrieved in 2016), three hundred fifty one individuals received treatment with either a placebo or Aminexil in six single blinded trials that lasted between 3 to 6 months.

The patients had to apply a 6ml water alcohol solution every day on their scalp; the solution contained 1.5% Aminexil. The changes were measured using Phototrichograms which assesses hair quality and measures the hair scalp dynamic. Subjects who received Aminexil were found to have a decrease of telogen hair and increase of anagen hairs.

The telogen phase is when the hair is in a resting phase, stops growing and eventually falls out while the anagen phase is the active growing phase of a hair follicle. (Kanwar and Narang, 2013)

The report states that Aminexil prevents collagen formation around the hair follicle which increases its chances of survival. L’Oreal states that one treatment is sufficient to repair the damaged hair cells in people with a wide variety of conditions, from seasonal hair loss to stress induced hair loss. The paper also recommends that those who are gradually experiencing thinning hair and believe it is caused by a hereditary factor should use the treatment twice every year as it will stop the hardening of the hair follicle produced by testosterone. The report further states that the treatment has been tested for 10 years in various hospitals and clinics with positive results on premature baldness. (L’Oreal study cited by, retrieved in 2016)

The Effects of Aminexil Treatment

Aminexil preserves hair, helps with seasonal hair loss and shows improvements on people with alopecia stage II to V

The L’Oreal study promises thicker hair through the hardening of the hair follicles as well as a longer life for each hair follicle that otherwise would have fallen out. But there are limitations to the Aminexil treatment, as it cannot create new hair follicles, so the treatment is only to prevent or stop hair thinning. Those who have been experiencing hair loss for years and already have a high degree of alopecia cannot improve their condition much by using Aminexil.

Vichy Dercos hair loss treatment

Application is easy; the product can be applied directly on the scalp using a massaging technique. The product will reach the root of the hair through the hair itself but it can be helped by massaging the scalp at the roots. (cited by, retrieved in 2016),

In conclusion, the studies cited in the L’Oreal report show that Aminexil preserves hair, helps with seasonal hair loss and shows improvements on people with alopecia stage II to V. (, retrieved in 2016)

A good treatment for female hair loss

Female pattern baldness is very similar to androgenetic alopecia, causing a reduction in hair density over the frontal scalp and the crown and its frequency is higher than expected and may equal male androgenetic alopecia. It does tend to occur in genetically pre-disposed patients but it also seems connected with hormonal changes as it has been linked with menopause and metabolic syndrome.

The cause is a reduction in the dermal papilla volume and the duration of anagen decreases from a couple of years to a few weeks or months while the telogen remains the same or increases. This results in an accelerated hair loss and hair aging.

The paper also assesses the topical treatments that may be available for women. Besides Minoxidil, it seems that treatments containing both Minoxidil and Aminexil seem to reverse the perifollicular fibrosis as well as show improvements in impairing hair loss. (Singal et al.2013)

Furthermore, another study on female pattern baldness and its treatment (Kučerová R, 2006) mentions Aminexil again as an antifibrotic agent for collagen formation around the hair follicle either on its own or in combination with Minoxidil.

A good supporting treatment in male pattern hair loss

A previous paper from 2005 (Bienová et al.) confirms that Aminexil can be used as a treatment for androgenetic alopecia on its own or in a combined topical therapeutic method using minoxidil, fluridil or a preparation containing RTH16.

Another study on alopecia was conducted by the Department of Dermatology at the University of Bologna, Italy on the efficacy of Aminexil on patients who stop finasteride treatment.

The study’s goal was to see whether the Aminexil lotion would reduce hair loss that usually occurs after patients stop their treatment with oral finasteride.

The study was performed on 18 male patients with ages between 20 to 43 years that underwent treatment with finasteride 1mg for at least a year and stopped the treatment for various reasons. After the finasteride treatment was stopped they had to apply an Aminexil lotion once daily for one year.

After one year the evaluation showed the following: increased hair count in 3 patients, no changes in hair count for 9 patients, moderate decrease in 3 patients and slight decrease in 6 patients.

fibrosis is a hot topic in hair loss research

The study argues that Aminexil can be helpful in preventing the significant hair loss experienced after a treatment with finasteride but more studies on larger groups need to be made for the results to be more conclusive. (Vincenzi et al., 2004)

A synergistic effect between Aminexil and Minoxidil

The patent for a topical treatment containing both Aminexil and Minoxidil for the treatment of alopecia in mamals proposes a fixed dose of solution. This is because the solution containing Aminexil as well as minoxidil leads to a synergetic effect on the hair growth response as well as help with the deficiency in the growth process caused by the minoxidil’s poor water solubility and alcohol. (Dhuppard et al., 2008)

Although there isn’t sufficient data to conclusively report that Aminexil stops hair loss, there is significant data pointing towards this fact and even a few noteworthy studies linking Aminexil to hair fibrosis. Perhaps this link is the best takeaway from these studies, since fibrosis is a hot topic in hair loss research and any effective treatment would be worthy of further study.

The studies performed both on mammals and humans show that Aminexil not only works in combination with other hair loss treatments but also has a great effect on its own as an antifibrotic agent and this alone can help scientists come up with new non-invasive treatment methods for people with alopecia.

References and further reading

  1. Sawaya, Marty E et al., Alopecia: unapproved treatments or indications, Clinics in Dermatology , Volume 18 , Issue 2 , 177 – 186, Link:
  2. Kanwar AJ, Narang T. Anagen effluvium. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 Jul 6];79:604-12. Available from:
  3. Hyeon Gyeong Yoo, Jin Sook Kim, Se Rah Lee, Hyun Keol Pyo, Hyung In Moon, Jong Hee Lee, Oh Sang Kwon, Jin Ho Chung, Kyu Han Kim, Hee Chul Eun, Kwang Hyun Cho Perifollicular Fibrosis: Pathogenetic Role in Androgenetic Alopecia Department of Dermatology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Laboratory of Cutaneous Aging and Hair Research, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, and Institute of Dermatological Science, Seoul National University, 2006
  4. Robert Baran and Howard Maibach , Textbook of Cosmetic Dermatology (Series in Cosmetic and Laser Therapy), Oct 15, 2010 Link:
  5. Aminexil studies retrieved from:
  6. Singal A, Sonthalia S, Verma P. Female pattern hair loss. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 Jul 8];79:626-40. Available from:
  7. M. Bienová, R. Ku~erová, M. Fiurá{ková, M. Hajdúch and Z. Koláŕ. Androgenetic alopecia and current methods of treatment, Acta Dermatoven APA Vol 14, 2005, No 1 Link:
  8. R. Kucerova, M. Bienova, R. Novotny, et al. Current therapies of female androgenetic alopecia and use of fluridil, a novel topical antiandrogen, SCRIPTA MEDICA (BRNO) – 79 (1): 35–48, February 2006 Link:
  9. Colombina Vincenzi, Alfredo Rossi,Carmen Cantisani, Massimiliano Pazzaglia, Antonella Tosti, Does Aminexil Prevent Hair Loss In Patients With Androgenetic Alopecia Who Stop Finasteride Treatment?, Department of Dermatology, University of Bologna, Italy, * Department of Dermatology , University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy Link:
  10. Ulhas Rameshchandra Dhuppad, Vasant Sitaram Khachane, Nitin Babulal Bhamre, Santosh Kumar Pal, Topical pharmaceutical combination comprising minoxidil and aminexil, Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Limited, 2008

Topical Retinol for Hair Growth: A Break-through Hair Loss Treatment?

Topical Retinol for Hair Loss

Retinol, also known as Vitamin A and trentinoin, is essential for the growth of and maintenance of skin and hair (Ehrlich, 2011). It is thought that retinol regulates hair follicle growth through biological manipulation of the immune system (Everts, Sundberg, King, & Ong, 2007).

Topical retinol has also been shown to increase blood flow to hair follicles and encourage new blood vessel formation (Rogers & Avram, 2008, p. 552). The anti-inflammation capabilities seen in topical retinol have made it widely accepted by the scientific community as a potential treatment for hair loss (Rahman & Bagchi, 2014).

In a study focusing on the benefits of the topical application of 0.025% retinol, on average, test subjects saw moderate increases in hair growth and some saw extreme increases in hair growth. The combination of minoxidil and topical retinol saw even more statistically significant hair growth (Bazzano, Terezakis, & Galen, 1986).

Minoxidil and Retinol Shown to Increase Hair Growth

Supporting this assertion, Yoo et al. showed in a study that a mixture of minoxidil and retinol increased hair growth significantly in alopecia areata patients (2007). Bazzano, Terezakis, & Galen state in their study that the combination of minoxidil and retinol should be studied more than just topical retinol alone, as the two medications together seem to stimulate the biological effects the other lacks (1986). In addition, larger controlled studies need to be done to confirm these hair growth effects in hair growth patients, according to scientists, as most controlled studies done on both topical retinol and topical retinol combined with minoxidil (Terezakis & Bazzano, 1988). This need for further research is backed by recent studies on aging, where it is stated that topical retinol needs to be studied on hair loss due to aging to conclusively prove the hair growth properties of topical retinol (Rahman & Bagchi, 2014, p. 240).


  1. Bazzano, G. S., Terezakis, N., & Galen, W. (1986). Topical tretinoin for hair growth promotion. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 15(4), 880-893. doi:10.1016/s0190-9622(86)80024-x
  2. Ehrlich, S. D. (2011, June 21). Vitamin A (Retinol). Retrieved June 16, 2015, from
  3. Everts, H. B., Sundberg, J. P., King, L. E., & Ong, D. E. (2007). Immunolocalization of Enzymes, Binding Proteins, and Receptors Sufficient for Retinoic Acid Synthesis and Signaling During the Hair Cycle. J Investig Dermatol Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 127(7), 1593-1604. doi:10.1038/sj.jid.5700753
  4. Rahman, I., & Bagchi, D. (2014). Aging and Anti-Aging in Hair and Hair Loss. In Inflammation, advancing age and nutrition: Research and clinical interventions (pp. 231-246). Academic Press. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-397803-5.00019-8
  5. Rogers, N. E., & Avram, M. R. (2008). Medical treatments for male and female pattern hair loss. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 59(4), 547-566. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2008.07.001
  6. Terezakis, N. K., & Bazzano, G. S. (1988). Retinoids: Compounds important to hair growth. Clinics in Dermatology, 6(4), 129-131. doi:10.1016/0738-081x(88)90077-6
  7. Yoo, H. G., Chang, I., Pyo, H. K., Kang, Y. J., Lee, S. H., Kwon, O. S., . . . Kim, K. H. (2007). The Additive Effects of Minoxidil and Retinol on Human Hair Growth in Vitro [Abstract]. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin Biol. Pharm. Bull., 30(1), 21-26. doi:10.1248/bpb.30.21

Mesotherapy for Hair Loss – How it Works

It has been suggested that each of the three different functions of the skin (circulatory, neurovegetative and immunological) act in response to medication introduced through mesotherapy (Baran & Maibach, 2010) to promote healing, cell regeneration and hair regrowth.

Mesotherapy for hair loss

It is also believed that the skin acts as a natural time-release system of solutions that are injected into it (Latha and Vandana, 2011). This means solutions injected into the skin stay longer in the area where they are required than they would if they were injected into the bloodstream where there is a risk of faster elimination by general circulation. For this reason, smaller quantities are used in mesotherapy compared to conventional methods. This is why it is claimed to have fewer side effects (Latha and Vandana, 2011).

Which drugs are used in Mesotherapy?

Some of the drugs used in mesotherapy have been administered orally or intravenously in treatment of hair loss for many years and their mechanism of action is known. For example Finasteride, which inhibits 5-α-reductase, an enzyme that plays a major role in male pattern hair loss (Lucas, 2001). There is little knowledge however, about how they act when injected into the skin (Sakar et al, 2010) or when combined with other components of the solution. This lack of information on the mechanism of action, effectiveness and interaction of the components used in mesotherapy is also highlighted by Konda & Thappa (2012), Mysore (2010), Sakar et al (2010) and Sivagnanam et al (2010) in their studies.

Two cases of secondary hair loss were reported after mesotherapy to treat alopecia (a hair loss condition) using mesoglycan and homeopathic agents (Duque-Estrada et al, 2009). On the other hand, in a study by Moftah et al (2013), mesotherapy with a dutasteride-containing solution yielded positive results. The efficacy of mesotherapy in treatment of hair loss therefore remains controversial and the mechanism of action, unclear.


  1. Baran, R. and Maibach, H.I. (2010), Textbook Of Cosmetic Dermatology, 4th Edition, Informa Health care, U.K., pp 411
  2. Duque-Estrada, B., Vincenzi, C., Misciali, C. and Tosti, A., Alopecia Secondary To Mesotherapy, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2009; 61;707-709
  3. Latha, P. and Vandana, K.R., Mesotherapy – A Review, International Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutics, 2011; 1(1)19-29
  4. Konda, D. and Thappa, D.M., Mesotherapy: What Is New?, Indian journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, 2009; 75(1)47-51
  5. Lucas, .K.J., Finasteride Cream In Hirsutism, Endocrine Practice, 2001; 7:5-10
  6. Moftah, N., Abel-Elaziz, G., Ahmed, Y.,Hamed, B.,Ghannam, B. and Ibrahim, M., Mesotherapy Using Dutasteride-containing Preparation In Treatment Of Female Pattern Hair loss: Photographic, Morphometric And Ultrastructural Evaluation, Journal of European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 2013 Jun;27(6):686-693
  7. Mysore, V. (2010), Mesotherapy In Management Of Hair Loss – Is It Of Any Use?, International Journal of Trichology, 2010; 2:45-45
  8. Sakar, R., Garg, V.K., Mysore, V., Position Paper On Mesotherapy, Dermatology Specials, 2011; 77(2)232-237
  9. Sivagnanam, G. Mesotherapy – The French Connection, Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics, 2010; 1(1)4-8

14 years of hair loss ended. And now regrowing.

I’ve been losing my hair since the age of 18, although I only realized some years later (in my early 20s).

Around the age of 21 I started using 5% rogaine religiously. Sometimes I would even use it 3 times a day. After a few years I moved on to spectral Ds (I think is the name). That was supposed to be the best hair loss product in the world. And I started using an expensive supplement twice a day. I considered using Propecia but the side effects stopped me in the end after I saw my friend lose all interest in getting a girlfriend for years. I always had a girlfriend so that didn’t matter but I didn’t want a drug to change the way I feel and even think.

A few years past and looking back at the photos on Facebook, my hair had thinned so much and I’d been finding ever ingenious ways to hide it!

I started using a laser comb, 12% minoxidil you can get this stuff online by the way if you hunt for it), anti DHT shampoo, anti DHT supplements, eating healthily. Still no good.

One day I found Chrises program ( and I fell for it, bought it and never even read it for some reason.

Then about 3 months ago I emailed Chris and he sent me a new version of the program. He told me all about how it works, which I think is where I finally got the motivation to do it.


I don’t know what results other people have seen on this program but I am convinced that this is the only way to regrow your hair.

From the bottom of my heart

Thank you Chris

TrustPilot Excellent

Topical Melatonin for Hair Loss

Melatonin has strong antioxidant properties (Fischer et al 2012) making it a prime candidate in combating the oxidative stress associated with general hair loss and androgenic alopecia (AGA).

Topical Melatonin Spray

Human hair follicles are able to synthesize melatonin and express melatonin receptors (Kobayashi et al, 2005; Fischer et al, 2008). Studies have shown that these receptors are all in the hair sheath, which aids in the regulation of hair growth and stabilisation of the hair shaft. Further, it has been noted that melatonin can interact with androgen and estrogen receptor mediated signalling pathways. This observation may be highly relevant, given the role of androgens and estrogens in hair growth control (Fischer et al, 2008).

Based on the hypotheses on melatonin’s effect on hair growth, a topical solution of 0.0033% melatonin was developed by ASATONA AG (Zug, Switzerland). Several studies were conducted on behalf of this company to investigate the effect of melatonin on hair loss and results showed treatment to be well tolerated and effective (Lorenzi and Caputo, 2003; Macher, 2003). However, conclusions drawn from these results are limited because some observations were not placebo controlled and were based on subjective questionnaires for the patients.

women with diffuse alopecia experienced an increase in frontal hair counts

Fischer et al (2004) also conducted a study on 40 women with diffuse alopecia or AGA. A 1% melatonin-alcohol solution was applied once daily on the scalp over 6 months. The results showed an increase in anagen hair growth phase in the occipital scalp areas in women with AGA.

Their frontal hair counts were unaffected. However, women with diffuse alopecia experienced an increase in frontal hair counts. This effect might be interpreted as induction of hair growth by prolongation of the anagen phase (Nixon et al 1993).

The value of these findings may be improved by repeating similar studies on larger populations and for longer periods. Moreover, additional hair growth parameters would have to be included before firm conclusions can be drawn on the efficacy of topical melatonin in the management of hair loss (Nixon et al 1993).


  1. Fischer, T.W., Andrzej Slominski, Tobin, D.J. and Paus, R., Melatonin And The Hair Follicle, Journal of Pineal Research, 2008 Jan; 44(1): 1-15
  2. Fischer, T.W., Burmeister, G., Schmidt, H.W. and Elsner, P., Melatonin Increases Anagen Hair Rate In Women With Androgenic Alopecia Or Diffuse Alopecia: Results Of A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial, Br J Dermatol 2004 Feb; 150(2):41-5
  3. Fischer, T.W., Trüeb, R.M., Hanggi, G, Innocenti, M. and Elsner, P., Topical Melatonin For Treatment Of Androgenic Alopecia, Int J Trichol, 2012; 4(4):236-45
  4. Kobayashi. H., Kromminga. A., Dunlop, T.W.., Tychsen, B., Conrad, F. and Suzuki N, A Role Of Melatonin In Neuroectodermal-Mesodermal Interactions: The Hair Follicle Synthesizes Melatonin And Expresses Functional Melatonin Receptors. FASEB J.2005; 19:1710-2.
  5. Lorenzi. S. and Caputo, R. (2003) Melatonin Cosmetic Hair Solution: Open Study Of The Efficacy And The Safety On Hair Loss (Telogen) Control And Hair Growth (Anagen) Stimulation. MEL-COS-ASO1. Data on file. Asatona AG, Switzerland.
  6. Macher, J.P. (2003) Pharmacokinetics And Clinical And Biological Tolerability Of Repeated Topical Application Of A Melatonin- Containing Cosmetic Hair Solution In Healthy Female Volunteers. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross Over Design Study. Clinical Study Report. MEL-COS-1. Data on file. Asatona AG, Switzerland.
  7. Nixon, A.J., Choy, V.J. and Parry, A.L., Fiber Growth Initiation In Hair Follicles Of Goats Treated With Melatoni, J Exp Zool 1993; 267:47–56.

Ginkgo Biloba for Hair Loss

Gingko biloba supplement

Limited research suggests that Ginkgo Biloba Extract (GBE) is a possible treatment for hair loss. GBE is reportedly used in three hair products (FDA 2006). Kobayashi et al (1993) conducted a study to determine the effects of GBE in normal, pre-shaven mice. As GBE was shown to promote hair regrowth in these mice, they suggested that it could be used as a hair tonic in humans. In another in vivo study, Kim et al (1998) also found that GBE stimulated hair growth through discouraging programmed cell death in hair follicles.

GBE is known to have a positive influence on blood flow (Krieglstein, 1985; Mashayekh et a, 2011). Although hair follicles are not supplied by blood vessels, they are surrounded by blood vessels that have been thought to arise from the deep blood vessels in the skin (Durward and Rudall, 1958). When these vessels meet the nutritional needs of hair follicles during the anagen phase of rapid cell division, cyclic hair growth occurs (Yano et al, 2001). In addition, it has been previously suggested that impaired development of blood vessels surrounding the hair follicle plays a role in hair loss (Goldman et al, 1995). These findings suggest that GBE’s influence on circulation would in turn impact hair growth.

There have been reports of occasional adverse effects with excessive consumption of GBE (Skogh, 1998). Long term safety is not clear. In addition, data on GBE’s safety and efficacy in pattern hair loss has not been adequately and critically evaluated and documented in peer-reviewed clinical trials (Mysore, 2010). While laboratory studies on GBE have produced promising evidence, further studies are required to investigate its mechanism of action on human hair follicles. Large scale, well designed clinical trials are needed to substantiate claims of GBE’s efficacy (Patil et al, 2011).


  1. Durward, A., and Rudall, K.M. (1958), The Vascularity And Patterns Of Growth Of Hair Follicles. In The biology of hair growth. W. Montagna and R.A. Ellis, editors. Academic Press. New York, USA. Pp189–218.
  2. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Frequency of use of cosmetic ingredients. FDA database. FDA, Washington DC, 2006
  3. Goldman, C.K., Tsai, J.C., Soroceanu, L. and Gillespie, G.Y., Loss Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor In Human Alopecia Hair Follicles, J Invest Dermatol. 1995; 104(Suppl. 1):18S–20S.
  4. Krieglstein, J., Beck, T. and Seibert, (1986). Influence Of An Extract Of Ginkgo biloba On Cerebral Blood Flow And Metabolism. Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Fachbereich Pharmazie und Lebensmittelchemie der Philipps-Universität, Ketzerbach 63, D-3550 Marburg, Federal Republic of Germany.
  5. Kobayashi, N., Suzuki, R., Koide, C., Suzuki, T., Matsuda, H. and Kubo M. (1993) Effect Of Leaves Of Ginkgo biloba On Hair Regrowth In C3H Strain Mice, Yakugaku Zasshi. 113(10):718-24. Japanese
  6. Mashayekh, A., Pham, D.L., Yousem, D.M., Dizon, M., Barker, P.B. and Lin, D.D., Effects Of Gingko biloba On Cerebral Blood Flow Assessed By Quantitative MR Perfusion Imaging: A Pilot Study. Neuro-radiology. 2011 Mar; 53(3):185-91.
  7. Mysore, V. Mesotherapy In Management Of Hair Loss- Is It Of Any Use? International Journal of Trichology. 2010; 2(1):45-46
  8. Patil, S.M., Sapkale, G.N., Surwase, U.S., Bhombe, B.T., Herbal Medicines As An Effective Therapy In Hair Loss- A Review. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2011; 1(2):773-781.
  9. Skogh, M. Extracts of Ginkgo biloba And Bleeding Or Haemorrhage. Lancet 1998;352(9134): 1145-1146
  10. Yano K, Brown L.F., Detmar M. Control Of Hair Growth And Follicle Size By VEGF-Mediated Angiogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2001 Feb 15; 107(4):409–417.

Arginine for Hair Loss

Arginine supplement

Arginine or L- arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. (Tapiero H et al., 2002)

Arginine is used to improve circulation, improve the immune system and some research suggests that it can be beneficial for patients with heart failure (Rector et al., 1996) and small-vessel coronary endothelial function in humans. (Lerman et al., 1998)

Why are these things important in hair growth?

Increase nutrient supply to hair

  • Hair keratin can only grow if it receives amino acids and other nutrients via the blood stream. Treatments like Minoxidil, which increase blood flow to the scalp work for this reason. But we can use amino acids like arginine to achieve similar results as well as gaining several other benefits, without negative side effects.
  • Keratin is a protein, which is synthesized from amino acids such as cysteine, lysine and methionine. Arginine aids in the synthesis of proteins and therefore should help increase the development of hair keratin.

Other studies suggest that arginine also accelerates wound healing (Barbul et al., 1990; Stechmiller et al., 2005) helps with fat burning, enhances skeletal muscle (Jobgen et. al, 2009) and decreases the cholesterol induced atherosclerosis.(Hayashi et al., 2005) Even more research suggests that arginine improves libido in men as well as their sexual performance. (Klotz et al., 1999)

Nitric oxide and hair growth

A number of studies have shown that arginine has vasodilating effects; these effects might help with hair growth as a precursor of nitric oxide. (Bode-Böger et al., 1998;1996) Due to this vasodilating effect arginine can be considered to be one of the amino-acids that might promote hair growth, either through oral supplements or even topical application.

Arginine’s role in hair growth

To better understand the role of arginine in hair growth, let’s take the hair fibre, which is extremely sensitive to stimulatory and inhibitory signals.

There is a wide array of modulators in the hair follicle, from cytokines, neuropeptides, hormones, prostaglandins and growth factors, all of which contribute to its modification. There is a strict dependence for arginine as well as polyamines, glucose for growth and a particular immunological response. (Bernard, 2016)

A number of studies suggest that there is a connection between lack of arginine and hair loss

A 2004 study (Oshimura and Ino) showed potential benefits of arginine for hair, even when the hair is exposed to harmful agents such as colouring solutions or a bleaching process. Arginine was added to the colouring solution containing hydrogen peroxide and ammonia.

Hair that underwent colouring with arginine enhanced solutions was less damaged and contained substantial arginine deposits added to the hair follicle by the colouring agents.

Arginine for hair loss

A number of studies suggest that there is a connection between lack of arginine and hair loss. A study on intestinal arginine production for neonatal development concluded that arginine deficiency is correlated with a degree of retardation in hair and muscle growth as well as the development of the lymphoid tissue. However, some of the abnormalities were reversed with the help of arginine injections. (de Jonge, 2002)

A study from 2011 on mice with an overexpression of arginase showed that they develop hypoarginiemia along with reduced hair and muscle growth as well as impaired B-cell maturation. (Marion et al., 2011)

It seems that arginine increases hair growth

Another study from 2012 (Sreenath et al.) on argininosuccinate lyase deficiency also shows the benefits of arginine. This condition is the second most common urea cycle disorder and, among other symptoms, manifests itself through trichorrexis nodosa, creating nodular swellings of the hair shaft that comes with loss of cuticle and frayed hair fibres. People who have argininosuccinate lyase deficiency will experience symptoms like brittle hair, thinning hair and ultimately partial alopecia according to another paper cited in the study. (FIchtel, Richards & Davis, 2007)

It seems that 10.5% arginine is found in normal hair and anything less than that leads to a weakened hair follicle and breakage. (Marion et al., 2011)

Furthermore, the paper concludes that supplementation with arginine of 400-700mg per kg/day might prove successful in helping individuals with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency in reversing the hair changes. However, no further studies or follow-ups have been made so the researchers are not yet sure of its possible harmful long term effects.

The results were spectacular: the in vitro hair that was not treated with arginine stopped elongating while the one treated with arginine increased in size

A study that might potentially change the whole way we see hair loss was conducted in 2014, researching the importance of arginine in human hair elongation. (Michelet et al.) The study argues that besides hair transplantation or topical minoxidil application, there may be ways to counteract hair loss by taking into account the hair follicle and what changes its structure.

Scientists studied L-arginine concentration on in vitro human hair and showed that the amino acid had a clear anti-hair-loss effect. It seems that arginine increases hair growth, making it possible for scientists to further research a solution for those who suffer for various forms of alopecia.

Human hair follicles were treated with L-Arginine for 3 days / 12 days with renewal of culture medium and another treatment every 2 days. The in-vivo evaluation analysed 63 healthy male subjects aged 18 to 55 with androgenic alopecia from III to V grade. The effects were established using the phototrichogram technique.

33 of the subjects received a lotion containing L-Arginine while 30 of them received a placebo. The effects were measured for 1.5 months. The results were spectacular: the in vitro hair that was not treated with arginine stopped elongating while the one treated with arginine increased in size. For the in vivo studies, there was a clear improvement for the group that used the L-Arginine lotion as they showed an increase of anagen hair density and decrease of telogen hair rate, which is a resting status of the hair follicle.

L-Arginine sources

It is clear that the anti-aging effects of L-Arginine along with the studies done on its effects on hair loss allow scientists to come up with new research paths for treating or preventing alopecia. Arginine is a versatile amino acid and its anti-aging potential is higher than other pharmaceutical or nutraceutical agents. (Gad, 2009)

Since the long term effects of arginine supplementation are yet to be researched, people who want to benefit from this amino acid can still try by adding it naturally in their diet.

According to Nutritiondata website some of the highest arginine containing foods are the following:

  • sesame seeds
  • soy protein
  • gelatine
  • peanut
  • shrimp, crab, crayfish, lobster
  • cuttlefish
  • spinach
  • turkey
  • some types of game meat (moose, elk)

People can easily introduce these foods into their diets and get the benefits from arginine supplementation without being exposed to the possible long term medication risks.

The question still remains whether arginine is better applied topical or orally ingested. However, the studies presented in this article show that whatever the form of treatment is used, arginine does impact hair growth.

How to use arginine for hair growth

To use arginine to increase hair growth you simply have to consume a combination of natural ingredients. A special combination of ingredients increase arginine and nitric oxide in your blood. They also increase protein synthesis and promote cell production in the scalp.

To learn how I use arginine and several other amino acids as part of my hair growth smoothies, download my eBook.


  1. Tapiero H, Mathé G, Couvreur P, Tew KD (November 2002). “L-Arginine”. (review).Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 56 (9): 439–445. doi:10.1016/s0753-3322(02)00284-6.
  2. Thomas S. Rector, Alan J. Bank, Kathleen A. Mullen, Linda K. Tschumperlin, Ronald Sih, Kamalesh Pillai, and Spencer H. Kubo, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Supplemental Oral L-Arginine in Patients With Heart Failure, 1996;93:2135-2141, doi:10.1161/01.CIR.93.12.2135 Link:
  3. Lerman A, Burnett JC Jr., Higano ST, McKinley LJ, Holmes DR Jr.. Long-term L-arginine supplementation improves small-vessel coronary endothelial function in humans. Circulation. 1998;97:2123–2128. Link:
  4. Barbul A, Lazarou SA, Efron DT, Wasserkrug HL, Efron G. Arginine enhances wound healing and lymphocyte immune responses in humans. Surgery. 1990 Aug;108(2) 331-6; discussion 336-7. PMID: 2382229. Link:
  5. Stechmiller JK(1), Childress B, Cowan L. Arginine supplementation and wound healing. 1. Nutr Clin Pract. 2005 Feb;20(1):52-61.Link:
  6. Jobgen, W., Meininger, C. J., Jobgen, S. C., Li, P., Lee, M.-J., Smith, S. B., … Wu, G. (2009). Dietary l-Arginine Supplementation Reduces White Fat Gain and Enhances Skeletal Muscle and Brown Fat Masses in Diet-Induced Obese Rats. The Journal of Nutrition, 139(2), 230–237.
  7. Hayashi, T., Juliet, P. A. R., Matsui-Hirai, H., Miyazaki, A., Fukatsu, A., Funami, J., … Ignarro, L. J. (2005). l-citrulline and l-arginine supplementation retards the progression of high-cholesterol-diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(38), 13681–13686.
  8. Klotz T(1), Mathers MJ, Braun M, Bloch W, Engelmann U. Effectiveness of oral L-arginine in first-line treatment of erectile dysfunction in a controlled crossover study. Urol Int. 1999;63(4):220-3. Link:
  9. Bode-Böger, S. M., Böger, R. H., Galland, A., Tsikas, D., & Frölich, J. C. (1998). L-arginine-induced vasodilation in healthy humans: pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic relationship. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 46(5), 489–497.
  10. Stefanie M. Bode-Böger, Rainer H. Böger, Heiko Alfke, Doris Heinzel, Dimitrios Tsikas, Andreas Creutzig, Klaus Alexander, and Jürgen C. Frölich L-Arginine Induces Nitric Oxide–Dependent Vasodilation in Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia : A Randomized, Controlled Study 1996;93:85-90, doi:10.1161/01.CIR.93.1.85 Link:
  11. Bernard, B. A. (2016). Advances in Understanding Hair Growth.F1000Research, 5, F1000 Faculty Rev–147. Link:
  12. Oshimura E, Ino M. Effects of arginine on hair damage via oxidative coloring process. J Cosmet Sci.2004;55(Suppl):S155–S70. Link:
  13. Wouter J de Jonge, Marcella M Hallemeesch, Karin L Kwikkers, Jan M Ruijter, Corrie de Gier-de Vries, Marian A van Roon, Alfred J Meijer, Bart Marescau, Peter P De Deyn, Nicolaas EP Deutz, and Wouter H Lamers Overexpression of arginase I in enterocytes of transgenic mice elicits a selective arginine deficiency and affects skin, muscle, and lymphoid development Am J Clin Nutr 2002 76: 1 128-140 Link:
  14. Marion, V., Sankaranarayanan, S., de Theije, C., van Dijk, P., Lindsey, P., Lamers, M. C., … Köhler, S. E. (2011). Arginine Deficiency Causes Runting in the Suckling Period by Selectively Activating the Stress Kinase GCN2. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 286(11), 8866–8874. Link:
  15. Sreenath Nagamani, S. C., Erez, A., & Lee, B. (2012). Argininosuccinate Lyase Deficiency. Genetics in Medicine : Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics, 14(5), 501–507.
  16. Fichtel, J. C., Richards, J. A. and Davis, L. S. (2007), Trichorrhexis Nodosa Secondary to Argininosuccinicaciduria. Pediatric Dermatology, 24: 25–27. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1470.2007.00327.x
  17. Michelet J.F, Bernard B.A , Juchaux F , Michelin C , El Rawadi C , Loussouarn G , Pereira Rs Importance Of L-Arginine For Human Hair Elongation, 2014, L’Oréal Research & Innovation, Aulnay sous Bois, France – 2 L’Oréal Research & Innovation, Asnières-sur-Seine, France 3 L’Oréal Research & Innovation, Saint-Ouen, France Link:×130.pdf

Rosemary Oil for Hair Growth: Proof of its Effectiveness

A clinical trial was conducted by Hay et al (1998) to investigate if pharmacologically active stimulants for hair growth are present in rosemary and whether they have a therapeutic effect. In this study, 86 patients diagnosed with alopecia areata (a hair loss condition) were divided into 2 groups – control group and essential oils group.

The essential oils group rubbed rosemary, cedarwood, thyme and lavender mixed in jojoba oil and grapeseed oil daily while the control group used just jojoba oil and grapeseed oil. At the end of the trial period (7 months), 44% of patients in the essential oils group showed improvements in hair regrowth whereas in the control group, only 15% had improvement. The success of treatment in this study compares well with that of standard treatment practices used conventionally (Bedi, 2002).

Before after rosemary oil hair treatment

Figure 1: A patient showing an excellent response to essential oil therapy (Hay et al, 1998)

Kazunya et al (2013) conducted a study on mice to verify if rosemary leaf extract promotes hair growth. They topically applied the leaf extract on mice whose hair growth had been interrupted intentionally and observed an improvement in hair regrowth. In the same study, improved hair regrowth was also noted in mice whose dorsal areas had been shaved. They concluded that rosemary leaf extract was a crude drug of interest for hair growth.

In addition to the positive results in the above studies, Begum et al (2013), Al-Sereiti et al (1999) and Edwards et al (2015) all cite rosemary oil as a hair growth promoter. However, trials to investigate uses of rosemary on specific conditions are very few (Fugh-Berman, 2003). Consequently, promotion of hair growth by rosemary oil alone in humans is still not fully substantiated scientifically. Hence, despite it being known traditionally as a hair growth promoter, it does not appear on the FDA list of approved medications for hair loss. The list is only limited to two, Rogaine® and Propecia® (Rogers, 2013).


  1. Al-Sereiti, M.R., Abu-Amer, K.M. and Sen, P., Pharmacology Of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn) And Its Therapeutic Potentials, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 1999 Feb;37(2):124-130
  2. Bedi, M.K. and Shenefelt, P.D., Herbal Therapy In Dermatology, Archives of Dermatology, 2002; 138(2):232-242
  3. Begum, A., Sandhya, S., Shaffath Ali, S., Vinod, K.R., Reddy, S. and Baryi, D., An In-Depth Review On The Medicinal Flora Rosmarinus Officinalis (Lamiciaceae), Acta Scientaria Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria, 2013; 12(1):61-73
  4. Edwards, S.E., Rocha, I.D.C., Williamson, E. M. and Heinrich, M (2015), Rosemary, In Phytopharmacy: An Evidence-Based Guide To Herbal Medical Products, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, U.K., ch93
  5. Fugh-Berman, A. (2003), The 5-Minute Herb & Dietary Supplement Consult, Lippincott Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA, pp 270
  6. Hay, I.C., Jamieson, M. and Ormerod, A.D., Randomised Trial Of Aromatherapy: Successful Treatment Of Alopecia Areata, Archives of Dermatology 1998; 134(11):1349-1352
  7. Kazuya, M., Kazuma, N, Masato, K, Mariko, O., Nooko, W, Kutsumasa, O. and Hideaki, M., Promotion Of Hair Growth By Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaf Extract, Phytotherapy research, 2012; 27(2):212-217
  8. Rogers, N. E. (2013), Cosmeceuticals And Cosmetic Practice: Cosmeceuticals For Hair Loss And Hair Care, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, U.K., ch24

Korean Red Ginseng for Hair Growth: Is it Better Than Minoxidil?

Korean Panax Gingseng

Red Panax Ginseng, also known as Korean Red Ginseng, has been shown to assist in increasing the number of human hair dermal papilla cells (DPCs) by preventing the programmed cell death (anti-apoptosis) of these cells (Park, Shin, & Ho, 2011). This property of Korean Red Ginseng is what allows it to promote hair growth.

In addition, Panax Ginseng is known to reduce blood pressure in a similar manner as the FDA approved drug minoxidil, allowing for Panax Ginseng extract to have similar rates of hair re-growth in test subjects as minoxidil (Kim et al., 2015). This study also showed that using the active components (ginsenosides) present in Panax Ginseng promotes hair re-growth at a rate even faster than minoxidil.

These results are similar to the ones found in a study of Panax Ginseng on Alopecia areata patients in Korea. (Oh & Son, 2012) This study treated twenty-five human test subjects with a combination of Korean Red Ginseng and corticosteroids and compared the rate of hair growth to a control group who were treated with only corticosteroids. The results of their study show that both hair density and hair thickness improved in test subjects treated with the Korean Red Ginseng and corticosteroid combination, while no statistically significant hair growth was seen in the control group.

They concluded that Panax Ginseng could be a useful treatment for people suffering from Alopecia areata. It is hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects of Panax Ginseng found in the ginsenosides of the herb may be the cause of the hair growth seen in the patients.

It has been expressed however, that further studies of the basic mechanisms of Panax Ginseng need to be conducted in order to understand precisely how Korean Red Ginseng stimulates hair growth and how ginseng should be applied in order to stimulate hair growth (Oh & Son, 2012). More clinical studies should be also done against a minoxidil control group using both men and women in order to conclusively prove the hair re-growth properties of Korean Red Ginseng. (Kim et al., 2015)

A patent for a green tea extract and ginseng extract has been filed by AE Amorepacific Corporation (Patent Number KR2015030095-A) that claims to prevent dandruff, promote hair growth, and to protect the scalp.


  1. Kim, S. N., Kim, S., Hong, Y. D., Park, H., Shin, S. H., Kim, A. R., . . . Park, W. S. (2015). The ginsenosides of Panax ginseng promote hair growth via similar mechanism of minoxidil. Journal of Dermatological Science, 77(2), 132-134. doi:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2014.12.007
  2. LEE, O., KIM, D., Hwang, K., Yeom, M., & Cho, J. (2013). Korean Patent No. KR2015030095-A. Seoul, South Korea: Korean Intellectual Property Office
  3. Oh, G., & Son, S. (2012). Efficacy of Korean Red Ginseng in the Treatment of Alopecia Areata. Journal of Ginseng Research, 36(4), 391-395. doi:10.5142/jgr.2012.36.4.391
  4. Park, S., Shin, W., & Ho, J. (2011). Fructus panax ginseng extract promotes hair regeneration in C57BL/6 mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 138(2), 340-344. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.08.013

RU58841 for Hair Loss / Increasing Hair growth: is it Worth Trying?


Androgenic alopecia is an androgen-dependent condition caused by the binding of DHT to the androgen receptor. A person predisposed to androgenic alopecia shows high levels of DHT and an increased expression of the androgen receptor.

Clinical treatment with anti-androgens, whether taken orally or through topical application has been proven to be successful. (Trueb, 2002) Among them, the anti-androgen RU58841 seems to be a promising drug that may help people suffering from androgenic alopecia as well as other androgen-dependent diseases.

Before analysing the various studies that are linked to RU58841 it is important to mention that this drug hasn’t been approved and there aren’t any trial studies showing its real effects on hair loss. It is also still classified just as a chemical, but available for purchase online for research.

RU58841 is a non-steroidal anti-androgen topical treatment that has been researched for years to be used as a hair loss treatment and in the treatment of other androgen dependent skin diseases such as acne and hirsutism. It seems that acne and androgeic alopecia are both linked to androgen effect; it has been speculated and shown in various studies that anti-androgens have a beneficial effect in patients experiencing hair loss with topical application of anti-androgens such as RU58841.

Several studies strongly indicate RU58841 is an effective hair loss treatment

The grafts that were treated with a solution of RU58841 had a total of 29 active follicles while the control grafts had two follicles

The RU58841 anti-androgen has a high affinity for the androgen receptors in the hamster prostate and flank organ and has a dose-dependent effect when applied topically. (Battman et al., 1994) Another study (Miyamoto, et al., 1996) states that hormone therapy can be used for the treatment of prostate cancer and some antiandrogens may act as androgen receptor antagonists. It also mentions RU58841 has good anti-androgen properties, which makes it a viable candidate as a treatment for other androgen dependent diseases.

Even more studies confirm the efficacy of the treatment: Teutsch et al., (1994) suggest that RU58841 may be useful as specific markers in the treatment of male pattern baldness or acne, among others. In fact, the paper states, RU58841 is also without any antagonistic effect and has no specific binding to human plasma.

How does RU58841 work?

the results showed that the topical application of RU58841 not only increased the hair density but also its thickness and length

RU58841 is considered to be one of the most promising drugs regarding hair loss prevention and it’s also available commercially for those who want to try the drug on their own; but as a treatment, there have been no trials to this date (2016). However, there are testimonials online from people who have undergone the treatment independently and had positive results, but without any official clinical trials and an approved drug, RU58841 has very little chances to become the newest treatment against hair loss any time soon.

To study the effect of the RU58841 on human hair growth, researchers (Brouwer et al., 1997) used twenty productive scalp grafts from bald men. These were maintained for 8 months and grafted to nude mice in order to monitor the hair production process. The monitoring lasted for 6 months, during which time a topical solution of testosterone was applied. Some of the scalp samples were treated with a topical solution of RU58841 for 5 days a week while other scalp samples were treated with a solution of ethanol as a control. The results showed the efficacy of the RU58841 in hair growth. The grafts that were treated with a solution of RU58841 had a total of 29 active follicles while the control grafts had two follicles. Among the active follicles, 28% of the RU58841 treated follicles showed a second cycle while in the control group, only 2 follicles initiated a second hair cycle. The study concluded that the value for linear hair growth rates was significantly higher in the group treated with the RU58841 and this particular product may be used in the treatment of androgen dependent alopecia successfully.

Another study (Pan et al., 1998) was focused on RU58841 as an anti-androgen in prostate PC3 cells as well as a topical anti-alopecia agent in the bald scalp of the stump tailed macaques. When it was used as an anti-alopecia agent, the results showed that the topical application of RU58841 not only increased the hair density but also its thickness and length. The athors concluded that the RU58841 anti-androgen could be a great candidate in the treatment of androgen-dependent skin disorders.

RU58841 may be beneficial for sebum related alopecia

the authors concluded that RU58841 + myristylchloride should definitely be considered as a treatment for topical anti-androgen therapy of acne and androgenic alopecia

A study on fuzzy rats, a mutant rat between the hairless and hairy albino rat, examined the role and effect of the androgen receptor blocker RU58841 on regression of glandural and ductal hyperplasia. This particular mutant rat has an androgen-dependent hyper secretion of sebum as well as hyperplastic sebaceous glands along with 2 other agents: MK386 and finasteride. The agents were dissolved into propylene glycol, alcohol and water and applied on the backs of peripubertal male rats for 2 months. There were two other groups, one castrated and a control one that only received the vehicle solutions (propylene glycol, alcohol and water) without any agent. The results showed that RU58841 induced glandural and ductal regression equivalent to that in castrates and also a reduction of BrdU-positive cells. The agent RU58841 also counteracted endogenous androgens which resulted in a suppression of growth of the sebaceous glands but not the prostate. The authors conclude that this model for androgen dependent hyperplasia can be useful in further study.

RUM: An improved version of RU58841

In 2003, a study showed how an improved RU58841 would be an even better potential treatment for hair loss. The drug was incorporated with myristylchloride and this new type of drug was called RUM. The authors checked RUM for penetration and permeation and in order to improve the targeting of the hair follicles the substance was loaded on solid lipid nanoparticles. After permeation and penetration tests the authors concluded that RU58841 + myristylchloride should definitely be considered as a treatment for topical anti-androgen therapy of acne and androgenic alopecia. (Munster et al., 2005)

Imamura et al. states that RU58841 also prevents androgenic follicular regression in stump tailed macaques but doesn’t promote the follicular cell growth — at least not in a direct way. The best effects in their study were observed on the group receiving an additional Minoxidil 5% along with the RU58841 for both hair regrowth and hair persistence.

Certain companies have been taking an interest in RU58841 and the drug became known also as PSK-3841. Proskelia, a French company started investigating the drug and it seems to have been in Phase II clinical trials in January 2004. The trial ended in 2005 but no news has been released concerning it. (Guénolé, 2004, retreived 2016)

A benefit when using RU58841 according to the scarce research that has been done is the fact that there are no known side effects. When the drug is applied on the scalp it is able to penetrate the skin easily and reach the hair follicles without entering the bloodstream. (RU58841 : Independent Information, retrieved 2016)

Unfortunately, there have been no further attempts to bring back RU58841 or any attempts to study it as a viable option for androgen related diseases, but the compound still exists and it is frequently reviewed by independent sources testing it, on its own or in a combination with Minoxidil 5%. However, testing the product on your own without proper medical advice would imply some risks which may be linked to the possible side effects of this compound or the quality standard of your supplier.

References and further reading

  1. Ralph M Trüeb, Molecular mechanisms of androgenetic alopecia, Experimental Gerontology, Volume 37, Issues 8–9, 9 August 2002, Pages 981-990, ISSN 0531-5565, (
  2. T. Battmann, A. Bonfils, C. Branche, J. Humbert, F. Goubet, G. Teutsch, D. Philibert, RU 58841, a new specific topical antiandrogen: A candidate of choice for the treatment of acne, androgenetic alopecia and hirsutism, The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Volume 48, Issue 1, January 1994, Pages 55-60, ISSN 0960-0760, (
  3. Miyamoto, H., Yeh, S., Wilding, G., & Chang, C. (1998). Promotion of agonist activity of antiandrogens by the androgen receptor coactivator, ARA70, in human prostate cancer DU145 cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95(13), 7379–7384.
  4. G. Teutsch, F. Goubet, T. Battmann, A. Bonfils, F. Bouchoux, E. Cerede, D. Gofflo, M. Gaillard-Kelly, D. Philibert, Non-steroidal antiandrogens: Synthesis and biological profile of high-affinity ligands for the androgen receptor, The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Volume 48, Issue 1, January 1994, Pages 111-119, ISSN 0960-0760, (
  5. Münster U; Nakamura C; Haberland A; Jores K; Mehnert W; Rummel S; Schaller M; Korting HC; Zouboulis ChC; Blume-Peytavi U; Schäfer-Korting M (January 2005). “RU 58841-myristate–prodrug development for topical treatment of acne and androgenetic alopecia”. Pharmazie. 60 (1): 8–12. PMID 15700772.
  6. De Brouwer, B., Tételin, C., Leroy, T., Bonfils, A. And Van Neste, D. (1997), A Controlled Study Of the effects of RU58841, a non-steroidal antiandrogen, on human hair production by balding scalp grafts maintained on testosterone-conditioned nude mice. British Journal of Dermatology, 137: 699–702. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.1997.19382053.x
  7. Pan, H., Wilding, G., Uno, H. et al. Endocr (1998) 9: 39. doi:10.1385/ENDO:9:1:39
  8. Retrieved 2016
  10. Imamura, K. et al., The effect of topical RU58841 (androgen receptor blocker) combined with minoxidil on hair growth in macaque androgenetic alopecia , Journal of Dermatological Science , Volume 16 , S207
  11. retrieved 2016

Cysteine for hair loss prevention and hair growth promotion

Biotin Silica cysteine supplement for hair growth

Cysteine is an amino acid that is used by the body in enzymatic reactions. Despite not being an essential amino-acid, cysteine is extremely important for health — particularly for the elderly and infants.(Ames, 2000)

When cysteine is consumed, the body transforms it into a powerful antioxidant, which can protect cells from free radicals as well as side effects caused by drug reactions or toxic chemicals. The compound can also be used as an adjuvant in the treatment of diseases like bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Cysteine is an amino acid — a building block of proteins that are used throughout the body. One such protein is hair keratin. Of all the amino acids that make up hair keratin, cysteine is used most. In other words, hair is made largely of cysteine.

Hair Loss and Cysteine

Recent studies have suggested that a diet poor in cysteine or various health problems causing malabsorption of cysteine might be one a cause of hair loss.

The amount of cysteine in a hair fibre is an indicator of the hairs health. (J Cell Biol. 1990) In various animals, cysteine, along with other amino-acids and proteins, can protect hair and feathers and help them establish mechanical resilience. (Strasser et al., 2015)

Cysteine is considered to be one of the main factors involved in hair growth

One study showed that the l-cysteine is an important hair component and may be linked with alopecia and influence the mechanisms that are involved in the hair loss process. The study was done on mice which were exposed to a smoking machine (in a previous study the researchers created a smoked induced alopecia).

The groups of mice received three dose levels of l-cysteine and vitamin B6 daily. Vitamin B6 was used due to its important role in incorporating l-cysteine in hair cells. After 6 months of exposure, the results showed that mice receiving the most l-cysteine/vitamin B6 doses had less hair loss, concluding that oral administration of vitamin B6 and l-cysteine may be an effective preventive treatment in alopecia. (D’Agostini et al., 2007)

the treatment group had remarkable results with their anagen rate

Another study suggests that l-cysteine prevents the reduction in keratin synthesis induced by iron deficiency in human keratinocytes. It seems that l-cysteine promotes an important up regulation of keratins expression in the de novo protein synthesis and it counteracts the adverse effect of iron deficiency in keratin expression. (Miniaci et al., 2016)

Significant positive results

In a paper regarding evidence based guidelines in the treatment of alopecia for both women and men (Blumeyer et al.), various amino acids are mentioned with a special mention for cysteine. Cysteine is considered to be one of the main factors involved in hair growth.

The group that also followed the dietary supplement had a 50% increase in hair growth

The paper cites a study (Morganti et al.) where there was a significant mean change of total hair count in both male and female patients after a treatment containing cysteine.

The participants had to take an oral supplement that contained cysteine, copper, zinc and histidine 4 times a day for 50 weeks and the treatment group had remarkable results with their anagen rate.

The Morganti study results regarding the influence of cysteine on hair growth were very promising. 48 volunteers with ages between 21 and 38 years old participated in the study. 12 of the subjects were asked to take a diet supplement based on cysteine as well as a solution made with serenoa repens, also known as saw palmetto.

One group used both while the control group only used the lotion. At the end of the 50 weeks of treatment, the results showed an increase of hair mass from 20% to up to 30% as well as an increase in hair number up to 27%. The group that also followed the dietary supplement had a 50% increase in hair growth.


  1. Ames BN. Micronutrient deficiencies: A major cause of DNA damage. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2000;889:87-106.
  2. H.-D. Belitz, Werner Grosch, Peter Schieberle, Food Chemistry, 2009
  3. Structure and expression of genes for a class of cysteine-rich proteins of the cuticle layers of differentiating wool and hair follicles. (1990). The Journal of Cell Biology, 111(6), 2587–2600. Link:
  4. Strasser B, Mlitz V, Hermann M, Tschachler E, Eckhart L. Convergent evolution of cysteine-rich proteins in feathers and hair. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2015;15:82. doi:10.1186/s12862-015-0360-y. Link:
  5. Francesco D’Agostini, Paolo Fiallo, Tanya M. Pennisi, Silvio De Flora, Chemoprevention of smoke-induced alopecia in mice by oral administration of l-cysteine and vitamin B6, Journal of Dermatological Science, Volume 46, Issue 3, June 2007, Pages 189-198, ISSN 0923-1811,
  6. Miniaci, M. C., Irace, C., Capuozzo, A., Piccolo, M., Di Pascale, A., Russo, A., Lippiello, P., Lepre, F., Russo, G. and Santamaria, R. (2016), Cysteine Prevents the Reduction in Keratin Synthesis Induced by Iron Deficiency in Human Keratinocytes. J. Cell. Biochem., 117: 402–412. doi:10.1002/jcb.25286
  7. Anja Blumeyer, Antonella Tosti, Andrew Messenger, Pascal Reygagne, Veronique Del Marmol, Phyllis I Spuls, Myrto Trakatelli, Andreas Finner, Franklin Kiesewetter, Ralph Trüeb, Berthold Rzany, Ulrike Blume-Peytavi, Evidence-based (S3) guideline for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women and in men. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2011 Oct;9 Suppl 6:S1-57. doi: 10.1111/j.1610-0379.2011.07802.x. Link:
  8. P. Morganti, Fabrizi G, James B, et al. “Effect of Gelatin-Cysteine and Serenoa Repens Extract on Free Radicals Level and Hair Growth,†Journal of Applied Cosmetology, 1998;16:57-64.” 

Adenosine for hair loss: A complete guide

Adenosine is an antiarrhythmic compound used to treat different types of heart diseases. In the body it is one of the four nucleosides in RNA and consists of adenine and ribose.

Adenosine’s natural role in the body is to help cellular energy transfer by forming molecules such as adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate. Other roles of adenosine include: signalling pathways and functions in the body, causing the dilation of the coronary blood vessels, which improves blood circulation and works as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. (, retrieved 2016)

Studies have shown that Adenosine treatment may have significant results for hair growth and could help people suffering from androgenic alopecia. There are many compounds that help with this particular condition but what makes adenosine a good candidate to prevent hair loss and promote hair growth, even when compared to Minoxidil or Finasteride, is the fact that this compound is found naturally in the body and has limited (to none) side effects. (Oura et al., 2008)

Shiseido Adenovital Scalp Essence

Those who want to try this compound on their own might have difficulty finding it as it has only been used as a treatment in Asia. However, a solution containing adenosine does exist, it has been created by Shiseido and has been sold in Japan under the name Adenovital Scalp Essence. (WordPressonline, retreived 2016)

There are several studies that show the effects of adenosine on people suffering from alopecia, when applied topically on its own, or in combination with other hair loss treatments.

Adenosine for female hair loss

A study by Oura et al. (2008) on Japanese women shows the compound can be a viable treatment for female pattern baldness. This double blind, randomized and placebo controlled study was performed on 30 Japanese woman with female pattern hair loss. The researchers created two groups, some of the volunteers used a solution that contained 0.74% adenosine while other used a placebo solution. The treatment lasted 12 months and the results were evaluated with the help of phototrichograms and dermatologists.

The group that used adenosine had significantly better results than the placebo group. It seems that the solution containing 0.74% adenosine increased the anagen hair growth and increased hair shaft diameter. Another important aspect was the fact that there were no side effects noticed during the treatment, despite its longevity. Although the study’s volunteers were women, this doesn’t limit the effects of adenosine to women only.

Adenosine for male hair loss

Another study by Watanabe et al. published in 2015 was performed on men to test the effects of adenosine. The study used the conclusions of the Oura study to create the premise that adenosine would work just as well on men. 102 Japanese men volunteered for this randomized, double blind study and received either a lotion containing niacinamide or adenosine. The volunteers underwent treatment for 6 months and the results were evaluated by dermatologists; hair density and percentages of vellus hair as well as thick hairs were evaluated.

The results showed that the group receiving adenosine had significantly superior results than the one receiving niacinamide by having a higher increase in hair thickness and improvement of AGA as well as a more positive self-assessment of hair from the participants of this study. Also, just like in the Oura study, there were no side effects to the adenosine treatment, despite its longevity.

Hair loss products that contain Adenosine

Best Topical Hair Loss Treatments
DS Labs Spectral DNC-N
DS Labs Spectral RS Review
DS Labs Spectral RS
Best Topical Hair Loss Treatment
Shiseido Adenovital Scalp Essence
Shiseido Adenovital Scalp Essence

Adenosine vs Minoxidil

Another study (Faghihi et al., 2013) compared the efficacy of a adenosine 0.75% solution with a topical minoxidil 5% solution on patients with male androgenetic alopecia. The premise of the study is that adenosine would have beneficial effects on people with male pattern androgenetic alopecia. There were 110 male participants in the study suffering from grade II to V androgenetic alopecia.

55 of the males participating received minoxidil 5% while the second group received adenosine 0.75%. Among them 16 patients were later excluded due to allergic reaction or no follow up after the treatment. The treatment lasted between 3 and 6 months until the groups were compared.

After 3 months group 1, the one that received minoxidil achieved 2.4% recovery while group 2 had a recovery of 1.9%, which was no statistically significantly different.

After 6 months the comparison between groups showed the following: none of the patients achieved complete recovery, the satisfaction rate was significantly higher in the group receiving adenosine due to the more rapid cessation of hair loss. The results show that although adenosine works on recovery it isn’t significantly better than minoxidil, however, further studies are needed with various drug dosage to have a clear image when it comes to the effects of this drug.

Adenosine for hair transplant patients

An interesting study by Cooley (2014) showed that hair implant grafts that received adenosine had better hair growth results. The grafts were divided into 3 groups: one group was stored in a HypoThermosol with adenosine triphosphate solution, a second group was store in a HypoThermosol solution only and the third group was stored in a saline solution.

The results were significantly better for the adenosine stored grafts. After being implanted into the patient’s scalp, the hairs that had grown into the first group was 72% (adenosine triphosphate solution _ HypoThermosol), the second group had a 44% growth (HypoThermosol) and no growth in the third group (saline solution).

Adenosine, wound healing and fibrosis

Another adenosine study (Feoktistov et al., 2013) on its role in wound healing, fibrosis and angiogenesis concluded that andenosine and its receptors play an important role in matrix protection and neovascularizations, both extremely important for wound healing and tissue repair.

Adenosine and Fibroblast Growth Factor 7 (FGF-7)

Iino et al. (2007) explores the relationship between the adenosine receptor and minoxidil induced hair growth. The authors of the study performed DNA microarray analyses of DPC’s and found that adenosine stimulation increases FGF-7 significantly; the FGF-7 is the fibroblast growth factor 7. The study concludes that adenosine might stimulate hair growth through FGF-7 unregulation in DPCs.

Adenosine promotes terminal hair growth in Causasian men

A study (Iwabuchi et al., 2015) was performed on Caucasian men in order to assess the efficacy of adenosine in this particular group. 38 men volunteered for this study, which lasted 6 months. The group that was treated with adenosine had a significantly higher change of the thick hair than the placebo group.

The change in vellus hair proportion was also significantly lower in the group that followed an adenosine treatment when compared to the placebo group. Again, this study concludes that there were no side effects to the adenosine treatment and that adenosine is an effective compound that can be used on Caucasian men as well as Japanese men and women suffering from androgenetic alopecia.

Hwang et al.(2012) also studied how adenosine functions and concluded that adenosine stimulates the growth of hair follicles by triggering the expression of growth factors 2 and 7 and by inducing their downstream target signalling pathways.

Fortunately, all these new studies seem to indicate that there is a new acquired interest in adenosine since the beginning of the 2000s and we should expect either a new drug or the release of Asian products on the Western market. Those who cannot wait for the product to be available in their country can contact the Shiseido Company themselves and see if they can get the product sent to them for testing.


  2. OURA, H., IINO, M., NAKAZAWA, Y., TAJIMA, M., IDETA, R., Nakaya, Y., ARASE, S. and KISHIMOTO, J. (2008), Adenosine increases anagen hair growth and thick hairs in Japanese women with female pattern hair loss: A pilot, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The Journal of Dermatology, 35: 763–767. doi:10.1111/j.1346-8138.2008.00564.x Link:
  3. – retreived 2016
  4. Watanabe, Y., Nagashima, T., Hanzawa, N., Ishino, A., Nakazawa, Y., Ogo, M., Iwabuchi, T. and Tajima, M. (2015), Topical adenosine increases thick hair ratio in Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia. Int J Cosmet Sci, 37: 579–587. doi:10.1111/ics.12235
  5. Faghihi, G. Iraji, F. Harandi, M.R. Nilforoushzadeh, M.A. Askari, G., Comparison of the efficacy of topical minoxidil 5% and adenosine 0.75% solutions on male androgenetic alopecia and measuring patient satisfaction rate, 2013, Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica Link:
  6. Cooley JE. Bio-Enhanced Hair Restoration. Hair transplant Forum International. 2014;24(4):121, 128–130.
  7. Feoktistov, I., Biaggioni, I., & Cronstein, B. N. (2009). Adenosine Receptors in Wound Healing, Fibrosis and Angiogenesis. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, (193), 383–397. Advance online publication.
  8. Iino, Masato et al Adenosine Stimulates Fibroblast Growth Factor-7 Gene Expression Via Adenosine A2b Receptor Signaling in Dermal Papilla Cells Journal of Investigative Dermatology , Volume 127 , Issue 6 , 1318 – 1325 Link:
  9. Iwabuchi, T., Ideta, R., Ehama, R., Yamanishi, H., Iino, M., Nakazawa, Y., Kobayashi, T., Ohyama, M. and Kishimoto, J. (2016), Topical adenosine increases the proportion of thick hair in Caucasian men with androgenetic alopecia. J Dermatol, 43: 567–570. doi:10.1111/1346-8138.13159
  10. Hwang, K., Hwang, Y., Lee, M., Kim, N., Roh, S., Lee, Y. … Choi, K. (2012). Adenosine stimulates growth of dermal papilla and lengthens the anagen phase by increasing the cysteine level via fibroblast growth factors 2 and 7 in an organ culture of mouse vibrissae hair follicles. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 29, 195-201.

Detumescence Therapy for Hair loss: Does it Actually Work?

Detumescence for hair loss

Detumescence is defined by a reduction of the swelling in an organ or the skin, a subsidising of a tension state. When considering detumescence therapy for people suffering from hair loss, the concept refers to the reduction of inflammation or thickness in the scalp that is characteristic of hair loss sufferers.

Scalp Massage

the massage resulted in an increase of hair thickness as the scalp massage caused the gene expression to change significantly

Scalp massage or stimulating the scalp mechanically for hair regrowth has been, historically, one of the most popular self-treatments. From Chinese medicine to Indian practices and all through the Western world, massage was linked to better blood circulation and a healthy scalp. In the book “Hair culture”, the author describes a few methods for treating hair loss; he states that scalp massage along with hair pulling and vigorous brushing of the scalp were prescribed in the 20s for those seeking to improve their condition. (McFadden, 1922, retreived 2016)

Sibley (1932) showcases several treatment methods in the book Alopecia and its treatment. Among them, there are a few mechanical ones from high frequency currents applied by the vacuum electrode creating “electrical massage” which promises to penetrate even the scalps covered with the thickest hair. Another type of mechanical stimulation of the scalp is proposed by raising the scalp from the bone and then releasing it.

These mechanical methods of scalp simulation were promoted more than 80 years ago. However, recent studies show that stimulating the scalp might not be just an old wife’s tale, but a successful hair loss treatment.

Treatment for fibrosis

Before understanding why scalp massage might prove to be a useful treatment in hair loss, we need to understand the process behind it. There are certain theories regarding scalp fibrosis, one issue that many researchers consider to be important in understanding hair loss. Fibrosis is the thickening of the scalp tissue that occurs in people with alopecia. Researchers have hypothesized that the hair follicles cannot push through a thickened scalp to produce new hair. Furthermore, scalp fibrosis seems to also starve the follicles and can destroy the local metabolism. (Hiroyuki et al., 1972)

Treatment for inflammation

Inflammation is one of the main culprits in hair loss. A study on patients suffering from alopecia areata showed that the regrowth response to Minoxidil treatment was less than in patients who had significant micro-inflammation in the scalp when compared to the group that had little scalp inflammation. This shows the importance of understanding the causal role of inflammation and the thickening of scalp tissue in the treatment for hair loss. This is the reason why some researchers suggest that an anti-inflammation inducing agent should be considered during any alopecia treatment. (Zari et al., 2008)

Improved blood circulation in the scalp

The study indicates that massaging the scalp with oils promoting scalp and hair health can be an effective treatment for hair loss

Better blood circulation improves the health of the scalp and hair. A press release from Massachusetts General Hospital (2001) stated that research shows blood vessels were in fact the culprit for hair loss and hair grows thicker and stronger if there is an increase of blood vessels in the skin.

Certain authors have linked scalp massage to the mechanoresponsiveness of human skin and how adaptable it is in harsh conditions. There are various biochemical and scaffolding functions in our cells that can be modulated by force. (Wong et al., 2011) Scalp massage has been hypothesized to not just have a relaxing effect but also help reduce inflammation. Research has shown that scalp massage does result in an increased blood flow and skin softening (Ando et al., 2013) but the benefit of massage in the treatment of hair loss has not been evaluated clearly, although it has been historically proposed as a treatment.

Koyama et al. (2016) evaluated the effect o scalp massage on various hair characteristics such as the number of hair follicles, thickness and growth rate as well as the mechanical effect of scalp massage on the subcutaneous tissue and dermal papilla cells.

The study was conducted on Japanese males and the evaluations of the human derma papilla cells were done in vitro using stretching forces. The men who volunteered for the study received a 4 minute long scalp massage for 24 weeks. The derma papilla cells were cultured using a 72-hour stretching. The results were as follows: the massage resulted in an increase of hair thickness as the scalp massage caused the gene expression to change significantly. It seems that standardized scalp massage can transmit mechanical stress to human dermal papilla cells and can help increase hair thickness.

Massaging may improve results of hair transplants

The importance of scalp massage is also exemplified in a paper about various hair loss treatment techniques. In alopecia reduction surgery a good scalp laxity needs to be obtained before any surgery is done and it can easily be obtained with massage. Before alopecia reduction surgery, patients are required to undergo preoperative scalp massage due to the ability of the scalp skin to stretch over a period of time from prolonged mechanical tension. This helps increase the success of alopecia reduction surgery and shows how the scalp can change its structure to allow for better success in various treatments. (Sattur, 2011)

Beneficial use of oils

Another study (Hay et al., 1998) evaluated the use of oils during scalp massage and whether it improves hair loss and hair structure such as the hair root, hair shaft and the overall scalp health. The study was conduction over a period of 7 months and involved 86 people diagnosed with alopecia areata, which were divided into two groups. One group received a massage every day for seven months with a mixture of oils containing: lavender, rosemary, thyme, cedar wood, jojoba and grapeseed, all known for promoting hair growth and thickness. The second group received massage with a mixture of jojoba and grapeseed oils only. There was a significant difference between the two groups. 44% of the members in the first group saw an improvement in their overall hair and scalp condition but there was also an improvement in 15% of the members of the second group. The study indicates that massaging the scalp with oils promoting scalp and hair health can be an effective treatment for hair loss.

Detumescence for hair loss: by reduction of scalp swelling

One of the breakthrough discoveries that mentioned the term detumescence for hair loss is the study conducted by Choy (2012). The author’s premise was that the root cause of hair loss is not really understood fully and an out of the box approach needs to be applied. He analysed the distinct localized regions of bald and non-bald scalps as well as the geometrical shape of each head. The study concluded that in bald scalps, some of the regions have a non-uniform thick skin, as opposed to non-bald scalp where the skin is uniform and thin. Also, it seems that in bald scalps the skin is harder and the head is shaped as a dome.

The author suggests that both female pattern hair loss and male androgenetic alopecia seem to go in-sync with a certain skin modification in both molecular and macro levels. This change can be viewed as a swelling of the scalp skin and if the swelling it reduced, the hair may regrow again. To promote a thinner and softer skin the researchers used detumescence therapy on the human scalp. The study was conducted on 100 bald people (50 males and 50 females) and 100 people without baldness, all aged between 6-86 years. The study concludes that regular 20 minute long massage, twice a day will help thin the tissue and help promote hair regrowth, as well as reduce the shape that bald heads have acquired.

In conclusion it seems that detumescence therapy may be a viable treatment method for patients that have hair loss. If skin thickness is indeed the culprit for lack of hair regrowth, the research done by now and future investigation may come up not only with an easy solution for hair loss but also a less costly one when compared to the treatments available today.

  1. MacFadden, Bernarr. “Hair Culture.” Google Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Aug. 2016.
  2. Sibley, K. (1932). Alopecia and its Treatment. Postgraduate Medical Journal,8(78), 110–113.
  3. Hori, Hiroyuki et al., The Thickness of Human Scalp: Normal and Bald, Journal of Investigative Dermatology , Volume 58 , Issue 6 , 396 – 399
  4. Zari, J., Abdolmajid, F., Masood, M., Vahid, M., & Yalda, N. (2008). EVALUATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANDROGENETIC ALOPECIA AND DEMODEX INFESTATION. Indian Journal of Dermatology,53(2), 64–67.
  5. Wong, Victor W. et al., Pushing Back: Wound Mechanotransduction in Repair and Regeneration, Journal of Investigative Dermatology , Volume 131 , Issue 11 , 2186 – 2196
  6. T. Ando et al., “Biosignal-based relaxation evaluation of head-care robot,” 2013 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Osaka, 2013, pp. 6732-6735. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2013.6611101
  7. Koyama, T., Kobayashi, K., Hama, T., Murakami, K., & Ogawa, R. (2016). Standardized Scalp Massage Results in Increased Hair Thickness by Inducing Stretching Forces to Dermal Papilla Cells in the Subcutaneous Tissue. Eplasty,16, e8.
  8. Sattur, S. S. (2011). A Review of Surgical Methods (Excluding Hair Transplantation) and Their Role in Hair Loss Management Today. Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery, 4(2), 89–97.
  9. Hay IC, Jamieson M, Ormerod AD. Randomized Trial of Aromatherapy: Successful Treatment for Alopecia Areata.Arch Dermatol. 1998;134(11):1349-1352. doi:10.1001/archderm.134.11.1349.
  10. Massachusetts General Hospital. (2001, February 19). Blood Vessels Hold Key To Thicker Hair Growth. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 26, 2016 from
  11. Choy H (2012) Detumescence Therapy of Human Scalp for Natural Hair Regrowth. J Clin Exp Dermatol Res 3:138. doi:10.4172/2155-9554.1000138

Vitamin D and hair growth: More important than you thought

Sunbathing Vitamin D

Vitamin D has been shown to be very important in activating stem cells in hair follicles and regulating skin biology (Bollag, 2012). It is believed that vitamin D, which allows for calcium to be processed for the human body, triggers the regrowth process of damaged skin cells, including those in the scalp, and allows for regeneration of cells vital to hair growth (Bikle, Tu, & Oda, 2015).

The link between vitamin D and hair growth has been further shown in a study done by Mazen, Ismail, Amr, Gammal, & Abdel-Hamid (2014), where four Egyptian families with vitamin D resistant genes were found to have hair loss and required Vitamin D supplements to treat the affects of total alopecia and hypocalcaemia. Vitamin D has also been shown to be helpful in hair growth through replacing hair follicles in rats with hair follicles pretreated with vitamin D (Aoi et al., 2012).

However, there are few direct studies that show a direct link between Vitamin D supplements and hair growth, as more studies have been done on the relationship between Vitamin D and their follicles than clinical trials of Vitamin D supplements and hair growth in humans. In addition, while treatment of Vitamin D deficiency was successful in the four Egyptian families with Vitamin D resistant genes, only one showed hair growth through the treatment (Mazen, Ismail, Amr, Gammal, & Abdel-Hamid, 2014). Nonetheless, there is a link between Vitamin D and the hair growth process, and so Vitamin D could possibly be used as a hair growth aid after a proper clinical trial has been performed.

How Does Vitamin D Promote Hair Growth?

The two most important inactive forms of vitamin D – D2 and D3, known as calciferol – play a significant part in your well-being and hair health. Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) can’t be synthesized by humans and should therefore be taken from your diet. On the other hand, vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is synthesized in your skin in the presence of sunlight. D2 and D3 are then converted to calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D – this takes place in the kidneys or is carried out by the cells of your immune system. It is then transported to your organs and systems by specific proteins.

What is the Connection Between Vitamin D and Hair Health?

Vitamin D is very important to cell division and the process where new cells replace the old ones that are no longer functional. It is also involved in cell differentiation and the proper functioning of the immune system. However, the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the human body is the first and most important purpose of vitamin D, which ensures your bones, skin, nails and hair are strong and well nourished.

In the absence of vitamins and minerals, the hair follicle will shrink and changes in the growth cycle occur, which may cause your hair to become brittle and thin. Vitamin D improves hair growth and aspect in a number of ways:

  • It activates the cells within the hair shaft
  • It improves the look and feel of the growing hair
  • It stimulates and nourishes the hair follicle. Vitamin D receptors (VDRs) have an important contribution to the follicle growth cycles. According to scientific research, inactive vitamin D receptors in mice always resulted in hair loss
  • It stimulates hair growth. Vitamin D analogs (D2 and D3 supplements) reversed hair loss in mice, and cancer patients who have lost hair due to chemotherapy reported significant improvements after the use of vitamin D supplements. Through their direct action on keratinocytes (the cells found responsible for inactive vitamin D receptors), vitamin D analogs stimulated hair growth in mice.

How Can You Boost Vitamin D Levels?

Remember that getting more vitamin D from your diet and exposure to sunlight doesn’t magically grow hair. There are many other factors involved in hair loss/growth, and the best way to assess your situation is to speak to a dermatologist and perform the necessary blood tests. Moreover, doctors don’t recommend exposure to sunlight due to the increased risk of developing skin cancer, but as long as you get to spend more time outdoors without getting sunburned, everything should be perfectly safe. If you live in a sunny area, remember to use sunscreen with a good UV protection factor (SPF 15 at least). In terms of diet, fatty fish is a great source of vitamin D – catfish, salmon, mackerel and tuna for example. Other dietary sources include, but are not limited to whole eggs, liver, mushrooms and omega-3 fish oil.


  1. Aoi, N., Inoue, K., Chikanishi, T., Fujiki, R., Yamamoto, H., Kato, H., Yoshimura, K. (2012). 1 ,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Modulates the Hair-Inductive Capacity of Dermal Papilla Cells: Therapeutic Potential for Hair Regeneration. Stem Cells Translational Medicine, 1(8), 615-626. doi:10.5966/sctm.2012-0032
  2. Bikle, D. D., Tu, C., & Oda, Y. (2015). Calcium and Vitamin D Signalling in the Epidermal Response to Wounding [Abstract]. Immunology‚ Endocrine & Metabolic Agents in Medicinal Chemistry IEMAMC, 14(3), 128-136. doi:10.2174/187152221403150521104752
  3. Bollag, W. B. (2012). Mediator1: An Important Intermediary of Vitamin D Receptor–Regulated Epidermal Function and Hair Follicle Biology. J Investig Dermatol Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 132(4), 1068-1070. doi:10.1038/jid.2012.25
  4. Mazen, I., Ismail, S., Amr, K., Gammal, M. E., & Abdel-Hamid, M. (2014). Hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-resistant rickets with alopecia in four Egyptian families: Report of three novel mutations in the vitamin D receptor gene. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, 27(9-10), 873-878. doi:10.1515/jpem-2013-0443